Richard Schiffman: The benefits of carbon capture and storage

  • Richard Schiffman said,”…permafrost is beginning to thaw, which could release vast amounts of methane, a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. If that happens, nothing will prevent the climate train from careening out of our control” (The benefits of carbon capture and storage).
  • Dr. Klaus Lackner stated that carbon capture is not risky
    • Lackner stated “It simply amounts to cleaning up after ourselves, and repairing the damage that we already have done”(The benefits of carbon capture and storage).
  • Prime Minister of Canada in 2009, Stephen Harper said, “Carbon capture and storage has the potential to help us balance our need for energy with our duty to protect the environment” (The benefits of carbon capture and storage).
  • Graciela Chichilnisky, an architect for Kyoto Protocol says, “Carbon capture for commercial purposes could take more carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere than we currently are putting in, while producing a healthy profit. But governments around the world will need to grease the wheels by mandating a carbon market, in which industries are required to pay to remediate the damage that their pollution creates”(The benefits of carbon capture and storage).
  • It is unclear whether or not carbon capture is the answer to the CO2 pollution problem or if a new technology is better suited.

Works cited:

Schiffman, Richard. “Richard Schiffman: The Benefits of Carbon Capture and Storage.”Richard Schiffman: The Benefits of Carbon Capture and Storage. National Post, 21 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Mar. 2017. <http://www.nationalpost.com/m/wp/full-comment/blog.html?b=news.nationalpost.com%2Ffull-comment%2Frichard-schiffman-the-benefits-of-carbon-capture-and-storage>.

 

 

An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Carbon Capture and Storage Assessment Methods

  • “CCS projects have been cancelled as a result of inadequate assessment of risks.”
  • Problems with CCS
    1. Local pollution
    2. High electricity prices
    3. Dirty groundwater
    4. Health concerns b/c of leaking CO2
    5. Lower property values
  •  Uncertain costs with CCS
  • Set backs for projects are govt regulations , engineering factors
  • A common theme for articles that I have read is Global warming potential (GWP)
  • Economic studies have trouble getting data from U.S.
  • “CO2 leakage from geological storage is one of the most important aspects of CCS.”
  • When CCS added to power plant it increases fuel, coal, or gas, input to produce some energy output when CCS is not used
  • Real impacts of CCS are still unknown, further studies need to be done
  • CCS technology constantly faces challenges because it keeps changing
  • Canada Carbon Capture and Storage Structures Amendment Act
    • Amendment Act states regulations for regions before CCS operator can get a pass from the govt
  • Critical event analysis: CO2 leakage from storage area, there are only 5 studies that allow for leaking

 

Works Cited:

Choptiany JMH, Pelot R, Sherren K. An interdisciplinary perspective on carbon capture and storage assessment methods. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 2014;18(3):445-458. doi: 10.1111/jiec.12121.

 

Carbon capture and storage a costly, risky distraction

  • Article claims CCS does not work
  • There is not a commercial power plant yet that captures and stores its CO2 emissions
  • When Greenpeace first looked at CCS technology in 2008, CCS has not improved since then
    • Examples of CCS failing:
      • In 2013 Norway cancelled the Mongstad project
      • In 2015 United States govt closed the FutureGen CCS facility
      • In 2015 the EU carbon capture platform lost Many European utilities
      • UK govt had a one billion pound for the CCS industry which was funded by taxpayers. It ended up being canceled now the industry is nonexistent
      • There is a risk that CO2 that is stored underground will leak
      • In Salah, Algeria the CCS plant was shut down because when the CO2 was injected into the sandstone it caused earthquakes
      • In the North Sea in Sleipner, Noregian the CCS plant was shut down because scientists found cracks and decided that the CO2 would leak from the reservoir were it was being stored
      • In Mississippi, United States the CCS plant was shut down because of well blowouts which released harmful emissions into the atmosphere. As a result many animals ended up dying
      • When these plants close the fuel companies make the govt responsible for them
      • CCS comes with a high cost: CCS is 40% more expensive than solar energy, 125% more than wind, 260% more than geothermal energy
      • Also bad for energy production, can cut a coal power plants production by 40%
    • Other uses for CCS
      • Once the CO2 is captured oil companies use it for a process called Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
      • This process works by putting CO2 into the ground to get out more oil and gas out of the earth
      • This makes things worse for the environment because the extra gas and oil that the oil industry gets from using EOR is burned emitting more harmful emissions  into the atmosphere
  • CCS does not solve everything
    •  CCS does not fix all the problems relating to CCS, there will still be pollution from other sources like mining, drilling, and when fossil fuels are burned
    • CCS could make pollution worse because CO2 storage areas in the water could leak causing ocean acidification
    • Greenpeace, an environmental organization stated that CCS is not good for the future. They think the only way to make the environment and the atmosphere clear from harmful pollutants is to ditch the fossil fuels
    • Greenpeace states that the energy from the sun and the wind can supply all the energy we need
    • Article states that the clean energy sources are cheaper than fossil fuels but I disagree because I think fossil fuels are still cheaper

Works Cited:

Greenpeace International. Carbon capture and storage a costly, risky distraction. . 2016. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/Solutions/Reject-false-solutions/Reject-carbon-capture–storage/.

IEA calls on Australia to lead world in carbon capture and storage technology

  • IEA stands for International Energy Agency
    • 29 countries are members
    • The agencies goal is to establish clean non expensive energy sources
  • Australia’s government has removed the ban that does not allow the financing of clean energy to be able to invest in CCS
  • Professor Stuart Haszeldine, Studies CCS technology at the University of Edinburgh
  • Professor Stuart says, “The science and technology and engineering is all there but it always falls over at the financing model because countries find that introducing carbon capture and storage in competition with low-cost renewables is very difficult financially.”
  • The environmental lobby in Australia has fear regarding CCS because it works only some of the time and it is costly
  • John Connor, the chief executive of the climate institute, says “I’d prefer Australia being a world leader in responsible action in climate action and that’s getting the net zero emissions before 2050 [and that] means phasing out our current stack of coal-fired power stations.”

works cited:

Ferguson Z. IEA calls on australia to lead world in carbon capture and storage technology. Feb 23, 2017. . Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-02-22/iea-says-australia-should-be-carbon-capture-leader/8294312. Accessed Feb 17, 2107.

 

Major Oil Companies that are using CCS

  • Shell:
    • As of July when this article was published Shell was working on the worlds largest CCS operation in Alberta, Canada
    • Shell takes oil sands bitumen and turns it into synthetic crude that can be made into fuel and used for other products
    • This is the first time CCS has been used commercially in the oil sands industry
  • Chevron:
    • Has CCS plant in Western Australia at the Gordon Gas Fields
    • The operation works by using an underground pipeline that goes to a natural gas plant on Barrow Island
    • Once the plant is up and running the company estimates that 3-4 million tons of CO2 using the natural gas plant will be stored underground 1.5 miles underneath the island in a sand stone formation.

 

Works Cited:

Hower M. Seven companies to watch in carbon capture and storage &nbsp; Greenbiz.com. . https://www.greenbiz.com/article/companies-watch-carbon-capture-and-storage.

Japan pushes ahead with Hokkaido carbon capture test despite quake concerns

  • Japan wants to go ahead with Hokkaido carbon capture test despite earthquake concerns
  • Japan testing to see about the possibility of storing greenhouse gas emissions in the seabed even though it is in an earthquake zone
  • It has been 5 years since the last quake hit Japan and after the damage done by the nuclear reactor meltdown Japan wants to look more towards coal powered power plants but limit it’s pollution by using CCS
  • According to the article CCS has been test in many different locations but not yet commercially
  • Ben Caldecott, director director of the sustainable finance program at the University of Oxford’s Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, says, ““It is our view that CCS is unlikely to play a significant role in mitigating emissions from coal-fired power stations” (Watanabe).
  • People are worried that CO2 will leak when it is being stored
  • Tetsuo Kasukawa, a spokesman for Japan CCS Co, says,”The carbon dioxide will be injected “little by little,” he said, contrasting it with hydraulic fracking, where oil and gas drillers pump fluid under pressure into formations to release trapped deposits” (Watanabe).

Works Cited:

Watanabe, Chisaki. Japan pushes ahead with hokkaido carbon capture test despite quake concerns. Mar 1, 2016. :NA. Available from: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/03/01/national/science-health/japan-pushes-ahead-hokkaido-carbon-capture-test-despite-quake-concerns/#.WKdiExLytsM. Accessed Feb 17, 2107.

Carbon Capture and Storage

  • CCS works by capturing waste CO2 which usually come from fossil fuel power plants. CO2 is then transported to a storage place underground
  • CCS practices main goal is to reduce CO2 going into the atmosphere to lessen the effects of global warming
  • 1st introduction of CCS was the Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide project in 2001
  • 2008: Schwarze Pumpe Power Plant in Germany tested the technology
  • If CCS was applied to modern day power plants it would reduce CO2 by 80-90% compared to plant not equipped with CCS
  • The intergovernmental panel on climate change stated that is is estimated that CCS makes up to 10-55% of taking carbon emissions out of the atmosphere until 2100 when the carbon pollution effect is over
  • Carbon can be captured by using the process called scrubbing
  • It is expensive to apply CCS to existing power plants
  • National Energy Technology Laboratory stated that in North America there is enough CO2 storage to last up up to 900 years
  • Three different capture methods for CCS:
    1. Post- Combustion Capture:
      1. Used for fossil fuel burning power plants
    2. Pre-Combustion Capture:
      1. used in Fertilizer, chemicals, and gaseous fuels
    3. Ox-fuel combustion
      1. Fuel not burned in air but in oxygen

Works Cited:

Wikipedia. Carbon capture and storage&nbsp; Wikipedia Web site. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_capture_and_storage.

 

Introduction to Carbon Capture and Sequestration

  • Carbon capture is the most expensive part of CCS process
  • Removing CO2 from flue gas means that extra equipment has to be added to power plants, when equipment is added the cost of energy production increases
  • Geological storage: CO2 is put into geological formations, not the best practice b/c scientists not certain that the gases are going to stay in storage
  • CCS is studied the same way as global warming
  • Hard for companies to implement CCS technology b/c “The scale of the energy landscape is gigantic, so if your magic capture material contains an element that is not sufficiently abundant, then no matter how superior your carbon capture chemistry might be, your company will fail because the solution you deliver is not sustainable” (jjj).
  • Main scource of CO2= burning of fossil fuels
  • Graph below shows Energy increased in the past 30 years

Works cited:

Smit B, Bourg IC, Oldenburg CM, Reimer JA. Introduction to carbon capture and sequestration. London: Imperial College Press; 2014. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.stlawu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=711885&site=ehost-live.

Legal Developments for Carbon Capture and Storage Under International and Regional Marine Legislation

  • London Convention: International agreement that protects the marine environment from waste being disposed of at sea
  • Substances that are not listed in Annex I-III can be dumped at sea
  • “…’dumping’ means any deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter either from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea, or of such structures themselves” (Armeni)
  • Waste from vessels, planes, etc under normal operations are allowed
  • Co2 was not included in Annex I until 1996 when manufacturing waste was added to the list
  • At this time carbon storage was not allowed even though it is not dumping
  • In November of the year 2006 things all changed for carbon sequestration because a new amendment was proposed by Australia
    • Eighth category added to Annex I
    • Means Co2sequestration streams are now allowed
  • According to the article allowed only if following criteria is met (Armeni)
  • Disposal has to be into a sub-seabed geological formation
  • Mainly consist of Co2, May have other substances that come from capture and sequestration process
  • No waste added fro disposing of water or anything else

Works cited

Stewart RB, Macrory R, Havercroft I. Carbon capture and storage : Emerging legal and regulatory issues. Oxford: Hart Publishing; 2011. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.stlawu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xna&AN=435007&site=ehost-live.

More Information about Carbon Capture and Sequestration

  • CCS can capture 90% of emissions from fossil fuels that are used for factories and generating electricity
  • Three Methods are used fro the capture of CO2
    • prep-combustion capture
    • post-combustion capture
    • oxyfuel combustion
  • millions of tons of carbon dioxide are transported each year by trucks, ships, and pipelines

Works cited

“What Is CCS?” What Is CCS? – The Carbon Capture & Storage Association (CCSA). N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2017.