“Culture, Resistance, and Struggle” by Stuart Hall

You cannot reduce all societal struggles to class struggle as traditional Marxists tend to do. It is impossible to understand racial oppression or gender inequality strictly through an analysis of class struggle. Cultural and social resistance movements combats issues that cannot necessarily be solved merely by challenging the economic structures of society. Cultural and social inequalities are often linked to economic inequality, but cannot be explained only by that. Tao added that any cultural meaning will change according to what group it is read by and used by and can develop like the Dr. Martin’s shoes we discussed in class. Tao connected it to Raymond Williams and said that a cultural meaning can change from being emerging to residual over time, but this is not necessarily connected to economic change. Also when cultural norms transform and go from oppositional to mainstream it makes them lose their authenticity like Benjamin interpreted it. Allie added that when people listen or see art that has entered mainstream from an oppositional culture without being provoked by it, that is when authenticity is lost.

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